The damiana plant has gained popularity in the last few years mainly due to its aphrodisiac and muscle relaxant effects. Moreover, it helps to increase the libido and performance. Nevertheless, it also has many other benefits that we are going to explain now.
What is Damiana?
Damiana, Turnera diffusa and Turnera aphrodisiaca, is plant native to the United States (mainly Texas), Central America, and South America. This herb is technically a small shrub that produces yellow flowers. It belongs to the Turneraceae family and it has different names around the world: aphrodisiac damiana, demiane, or feuille de damiana.
Damiana grows in the wild with other cacti and it is very common in Southern California. It is used as an aromatic herb to prepare some dishes and typical recipes from the region.
This plant is a relatively small shrub that grows up to one or two meters high. Its tiny yellow flowers end up producing sweet fruit. The leaves are the active substance, which tend to be 10 to 25 cm long and serrated.
Damiana contains a series of active ingredients responsible for its natural properties. Overall, they can improve the functioning of the endocrine and nervous system. The damiana leaves have been traditionally used both to relax the body and to energize it at the same time.
Damiana has between a 0.5% to 1% of a complex volatile oil (thymol, alpha copaene, cadinene, calamine, cineol, alpha pinene, beta pinene, calamenene). This property grants it its peculiar smell and taste. In addition, it also contains flavonoids and tanins.
Uses throughout history:
- Increasing the sex drive and libido, while reducing the impotence
- Treating constipation
- Relieving the symptoms of depression, nervousness, and anxiety
- Fighting against the symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome, muscle soreness, insomnia, and headaches
- Improving the digestive health and relieve constipation
- Providing support against other disorders like anemia, diabetes, respiratory infections, mycotic diseases, and skin disorders
A study proved that the damiana herb relaxes the smallest muscles of the arterial walls of the penis. Consequently, it increases the blood flow to that body part, resulting in a stronger erection. Moreover, damiana can relax the small muscles almost twice as Viagra: a 90% against a 46%.
The damiana herb is legal in almost every country, except for some states of the USA. Purchasing the dry leaves is legal, but some sellers have used damiana to cover the commercialization of synthetic cannabinoid products. A popular case is the Black Mamba, some people sold it in the United Kingdom as a formula with 100% of damiana. However, it also had other illegal synthetic components in its formula. That is why Black Mamba is an illegal substance in many countries.
Origin of Damiana
Written record states that people from central and southern America, as well as western India, used this plant due to its properties. Above all, they used it to treat fatigue, since one of its properties consists of energizing the body; apart from combating a low libido and reproductive dysfunctions.
When the Spanish missioners reached Mexico, they saw how the native tribes mixed a damiana tea with sugar.
But its use probably goes further back in time; there are records about its use by the Mayas as an aphrodisiac, to treat dizziness and balance loss. It was used by the Aztecs as a toner since they believed that it improved the health and well-being in general. North America and Europe would have to wait until the 19th century, when the popularity of the damiana herb would exponentially grow. It started to be used as a medicinal plant, specially as a toner and libido enhancer, both for men and women.
At that time, people used it to make teas or elixirs by adding the leaves to water. The specialists advised to drink it every day to benefit from its properties. Moreover, they used this natural remedy for other problems like spams, insomnia, or tremors.
Use in the present
The knowledge about damiana was lost little by little, until it was rediscovered in the 60s by ethnobotanists and hippies. Since then, damiana has always had a permanent place in the shelves of herbalists and phytotherapists.
In areas like Mexico, they use this herb to add flavor to some drinks, specially in the liquor industry.
The damiana liquor is a very renowned traditional drink from South California. Its origin goes back to the ancient native people that lived in the area centuries ago. According to different documents found in the area, this drink was offered in ceremonies due to its aphrodisiac properties.
Making damiana liquor consists of blending sugar cane liquor as a base, combined with the turnera plants extract. Everyone speaks about its sweet flavor that comes from its natural origin, apart from its refreshing properties.
Properties of Damiana
The turnera plant or damiana herb has a series of properties for health that make it one of the most used supplements. It is available either as a tea, capsules, or any other format.
We could classify its properties in different sections:
The use of damiana has always been related to a constitutive improvement of the defenses of the body against stress. Moreover, it helps to relieve the symptoms of depression, anxiety, nervousness, and even insomnia.
In fact, it also relieves muscle tension or headaches. These are common symptoms caused by stress or high intensity activities. According to several studies, its benefits improve the well being in general by reducing many physical symptoms like pain and fatigue. Moreover, it can improve the digestion, increase the energy, while enhancing the concentration and desire.
Several written records from America explain that caffeine, arbutin, and flavonoids are the main active ingredients of damiana. As we have seen, this traditional thinking still prevails in some of these areas, where they still use damiana in drinks or offer them in events as an aphrodisiac liquor.
Damiana can help both men and women when it comes to increasing the libido, apart from treating impotence. In fact, it increases the energy, combats chronic fatigue and reduces the effects of stress by improving the resistance. The latter is a factor related to the field of sports, where it is used to enhance the abilities of the athlete, specially during cardio.
Studies and Evidence
The studies performed in humans to this date have not proven that this medicinal plant has benefits for sex. However, other studies have proven this fact on other species. More specifically, studies with rodents that experience impotence have proven that damiana improves mating behaviors. Said research showed that an intake of 80mg/kg of damiana extract increased the percentage of rodents that could have a normal sex function.
Moreover, people have used damiana to increase the orgasm frequency and to reduce vaginal dryness in women. In this case, the studies combined the extract of this plant with l-arginine, american and panax ginseng and ginkgo.
Without any doubt, the clearest evidence is the fact that damiana has been used for so many years even though there is no research or information that can ensure this fact completely. The popularity of the damiana plant has always been connected to the libido activity and a better performance both for men and women since ancient times. Nowadays, the food supplements that we can find are meant to increase the libido.
One of the less renowned benefits of damiana for health is its ability to prevent diabetes. In fact, if we combine it with other supplements like guarana and yerba mate, it can help us lose weight. According to several studies, damiana supports the hormone balance, while reducing the appetite and cravings. It also increases the energy levels in order to fight against laziness and encourage the person to do sports.
As always, in HSN we believe that sport is the key element when it comes to losing weight, always together with a balanced diet.
Turnera plants have anti-diabetic, antioxidant, adaptogenic, antispasmodic and gastroprotective properties that can help to lower the risk of many chronic diseases.
Studies and evidence
A study discovered the effects of damiana as a medicinal remedy. Therefore, it would be worth considering such effects for industrial and medicinal purposes. The research assessed the differences in performance and composition of the contents from the essential oils and antioxidants from the turnera diffusa plants in the region of Tamaulipas (Mexico).
To do so, the researchers took samples in Tamaulipas, in the arid area. They obtained the essential oil through steam distillation. Then, they analyzed it with GC-MS. Moreover, they also measured the polyphenol content, antioxidant activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP).
They identified 21 compounds in the essential oils. However, they only detected eucalyptol and ethanone in three places. The highest content was registered in the sample from Padron and Juarez, with a phenol content of 33.85mg GAE/g of dry matter. In addition, it had a 72.32% of antioxidant activities with ABTS, and a FRAP of 21.33mg GAE/g of dry matter. There were statistical differences in the content of essential oils, phenols, and antioxidants between the populations.
Traditionally, it is the second most important use of the damiana herb in its main cultivation areas. Some of its properties for health are due to its natural anti-inflammatory properties, used to treat diseases like otitis and nephritis.
A variety of turnera plants have been widely used in traditional and popular medicine to treat different types of inflammatory problems.
Nowadays, the research states that the plants from the Turneraceae family are a source of natural compounds that can modify the resistance to antibiotics.
Studies and Evidence
There are reports that confirm its ability to change the resistance to antibiotics of the Staphylococcus aureus strain, which is resistant to meticillin. More specifically, the study analyzed an ethanol turnera extract and chlorpromazine to assess its anti-microbial activity alone or combined with aminoglycosides against a SARM strain.
This extract produces a synergy with gentamicin and kanamycin. Moreover, the chlorpromazine enhances the kanamycin, gentamicin, and neomicin. Consequently, it supports an effluent system in the resistance to these aminoglycosides.
Therefore, said research suggests that the turnera extracts could be a natural product capable of modifying the resistance to antibiotics. This could be a new solution for the problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.
For centuries, those medicinal plants containing pinocembrin and flavonoids (both present in damiana) have been used to combat bacterial infections. Including those that affect the respiratory, reproductive, and digestive system such as those caused by the following strains: gonorrhea, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus, S. lentus and K. Pneumoniae.
Pinocembrin is one of the main isolated flavonoids from the damiana leaves. The activities of pinocembrin have been thoroughly studied and they include anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer effects.
Effects against other diseases
Pinocembrin has a an anti-cancer effect that has been proven in different studies.
Several studies revealed that pinocembrin can inhibit, delay, block, or revert the onset of cancer. Nevertheless, it needs the support of additional treatments related to carcinogenesis to prevent and/or cure cancer.
Based on the previous research, pinocembrin has shown cytotoxicity against certain cancer cell strains like colon cancer. Pinocenbrim increased the activity of heme oxygenase, capase-3 and -9, and the potential of the mitochondrial membrane (MMP) on this strain (HCT116). At the same time, it did not alter the activities of the cytochrome P450 reductase, quinone-reductase, EDP glucuronosyltransferase, and glutathione-S-transferase.
Pinocembrin can protect against chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis and suggests that the effect of this compound could be due to lipid peroxidation.
Support against severe symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome
Damiana can help women who suffer severe symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome, like cramps, mood swings, or acute pain. The objective is to take damiana extract during the whole menstrual cycle to obtain effective results. Turnera diffusa can help to relieve headaches, muscle pain, and stomach pain. One of the historic uses of damiana was to relax the muscles of the gastrointestinal tract in order to treat constipation, swelling, and abdominal pain.
Remedy for the lungs
As we have already seen, the essential damiana oil is rich in anti-bacterial agents (ascorbic acid, arbutin, thymol, cineol, or beta-pinene. These, along its mucolytic properties, make an excellent treatment for respiratory diseases such as: bronchitis, improving the expectoration; flu and coughing.
For urinary infections
The diuretic properties of arbutin, magnesium, and potassium and its bacterial properties, make of damiana a good remedy against urinary problems like: cystitis, reducing the inflammation and improving the healing of the infection; renal infections, specially useful in cases of pyelonephritis; kidney stones, improving the diuresis, increasing the urine production, and preventing or treating the formation of kidney stones.
It provides energy for the body
The combination of chlorophyll and damiana is a smooth toner for the organism. It can be used to give energy to the organism without producing an overstimulation or anxiety like it happens with stronger stimulants.
These properties can be used for the treatment of disorders that affect the central nervous system:
- Tiredness, helps to combat physical weakness
- Mild depression
- Autumn-winter depression, fights against sadness, lack of interest, low sex drive, lack of concentration, physical tiredness, or asthenia.
Benefits of Damiana
- Helping with sex problems: some studies suggest that taking a product that contains damiana, L-arginine, american ginseng, panax ginseng, ginkgo, vitamins and minerals could treat sex problems. It could improve the satisfaction, increase the orgasm frequency, and reduce the vaginal dryness. It is also useful in cases of impotence, premature ejaculation, vaginism, testicle inflammation.
- Supporting weight loss: some studies suggest that taking a product that combines damiana, guarana, and yerba mate could support weight loss processes for obese people.
- Energizing the organism without producing anxiety or overstimulation, which means that it can be used to treat disorders that affect the central nervous system, like tiredness, mild depression, or autumn-winter depression.
- Preventing headaches caused by different things: pre-menstrual syndrome or stress.
- Providing support against depression.
- Helping to fight against problems related to stress and their negative impact on the stomach.
- Preventing and treating constipation.
- Enhancing mental and physical resistance.
- Stopping diarrhea in lower doses, due to its astringent feature. However, higher doses could produce a laxative effect.
How can we combine Damiana?
As we have already seen, both men and women have traditionally used the damiana plant for its invigorating properties. Nevertheless, there are other natural supplements to increase the libido through several formats. Some of them are maca or ginger.
Let’s see what properties do damiana and these two natural supplements share, as well as some ways to take them:
The maca (or maca root) and damiana share many similarities. For instance, they are both native to Central and South America and they increase the libido naturally. Maca also supplies antioxidants that combat against the damage of the free radicals. It is an adaptogen that helps us manage stressful factors, increasing the energy, regulating the hormone balance, and stimulating the libido.
The ability of maca to support health and the hormone balance is one of the main reasons why people use it. The studies suggest that the maca root can significantly support postmenopausal women, since it can relieve the symptoms of menopause. It can be a good treatment for infertility, and even combat the weight gain and swelling associated with the premenstrual syndrome or menopause.
Many studies advise taking maca in order to obtain as much energy to perform activities of any kind. On the other hand, damiana can produce said energy, but also cause some drowsiness, due to its properties to treat insomnia. This could be one of the differences between these two natural supplements.
We can also combine Damiana with ginger, which is another ingredient that improves the libido and sexual activity.
According to some studies, ginger can improve the fertility of young infertile men in a 17% in just three months. In fact, ginger increases the luteinizing hormones (LH), stimulant follicles (FSH), and testosterone (T). The study performed by researchers of the University of Tikrit showed a statistically significant increase of serum hormones (p <0.01) in infertile men.
After 30 weeks of treatment, the serum testosterone had increased in a 17.7%; the serum luteinizing hormone in a 43.2%; and the follicle-stimulant hormone in a 17.6%. However, the dose of ginger was not revealed.
It suggests that the improved testosterone production was due to the fact that ginger effectively reduces the sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI). The DFI is negatively correlated with the testosterone levels.
In India, people have traditionally used ginger due to its properties to increase the libido. Nowadays, there are many options to take this ingredient as a nutritional supplement. However, there are other traditional recipes to make a natural aphrodisiac syrup, tea, or infusion. You just need ¾ liters of boiling water, 30g of cinnamon branch, 50g of dry ginger root or 100g of fresh root and 300g of white sugar.
Put the ginger and cinnamon in a big glass recipient. Then, pour the boiling water, close the recipient and let it rest between 6 and 8 hours. After that, pour all the content of the recipient on a pot and add the sugar. Boil and let it rest for 15 minutes. Once it is cold, strain it a bottle the liquid. To take it, you can drink two spoonfuls of this syrup diluted in 50cc of water, three times a day. It is advisable to take it as far from the meals as possible (one serving on an empty stomach, the second one mid-morning, and the third one before going to sleep). You can prolong this natural treatment from four to six weeks.
The combination of damiana with L-arginine and ginseng, natural aphrodisiac ingredients, can help to solve sexual problems. Combining damiana with guarana and yerba mate supports weight loss, specially in obese people who want to regulate their entire organism. Therefore, it has been proven that damiana can effectively prevent diabetes.
Side effects of Damiana
Due to its historical use, damiana or the turnera diffusa plant seems to be safe if we take small and moderate amounts.
Some studies have associated high doses with certain side effects, some of them serious in certain cases. A dose of more than 200 grams is a high dose of damiana.
Damiana can affect the absorption of iron on behalf of the organism. That is why we have to control the levels of this fundamental mineral while we take this turnera plant.
Some of the side effects are:
- Changes in the body sugar levels
- Intestinal irritability
- Heartbeat alterations
- Nervousness or anxiety
- Mood swings
Who should not take Damiana?
There are some people who must not consume damiana extracts nor any of its formats. Otherwise, it could entail serious contraindications for our organism.
- It must not be used by pregnant or lactating women, since there are not still concluding studies that show that it can benefit women in these situations
- Diabetic people: damiana could affect the sugar levels of diabetic people, which would result in an alteration of the organism. This is why these people have to pay attention to any sign of a low sugar level in the blood (hypoglycemia) and control it carefully. It is advisable to consult a doctor before using the product.
- Those who are going to undergo any kind of surgery should stop using damiana, at least a couple of weeks before the surgery. Damiana seems to affect the levels of glucose in the blood, which is why there is a chance that it could interfere in the glucose control during and after the surgery.
- It must not be used if you suffer irritable bowel syndrome
- Those who have an irregular heartbeat as well, since the turnera diffusa plant gives a boost of energy to the body, which can affect this cardiopathy
- People with sleep disorders, nervousness, or anxiety should also avoid it for the same reason as the previous one.
- Those who take insulin or medicines for diabetes should consult a doctor or specialist first, since it can alter the sugar levels in the blood.
How to take Damiana?
We can purchase damiana in parapharmacies or herbalists’ shops, and at our online HSN store. There are different formats available of this excellent ingredient with great properties for the organism.
We also suggest consulting a doctor or specialist before taking any type of damiana supplement or natural extract. Check the previous list of people who must not take this turnera plant to see if it is not suitable for you.
The most common formats are:
- Oil infusions
- Extract included in capsules or tablets
- Liquors, which is the traditional format
- It is used to cook and bake to a lesser extent, since the compounds of this plant are capable of being released in several foods or drinks
After reading the contraindications and possible side effects of damiana, we could say that the line between a proper dose and an overdose is very thin, even when we are dealing with a natural medicinal plant.
In fact, we have to know how to measure its consumption so that we experience an effect and, moreover, we have to learn to distinguish between the dose for adults and the one for children, since the latter have to be more careful.
There is still not many formal research available that suggest an optimal dose of damiana for the body. The dose will depend on the symptoms or condition that is going to be treated, as well as the size of the body and the sex, men and people with a higher body mass than normal require higher doses.
Most herbalists advise taking damiana tablets or capsules. The daily dose should be around 400-800mg per day, usually divided in three doses. If you want to treat a specific condition, you can go to an herbalists’ shop to help you find the correct dose of damiana.
Some studies have found out that 200g doses can be harmful for the organism and should always be avoided.
In this way, we can provide a general guideline with a distinction between adults and children:
- In general, adults need from two to three grams of dry leaf, three times a day, or the same dose with 150 milliliters of boiling water for 5 to 10 minutes, from two to three times a day. If we choose the liquid format, we will take from two to four milliliters of damiana extract or 0.5 milliliters of tincture, three times a day. Another choice would be to take three or four grams of leaf powder in tablets or capsules, which can be taken from two to three times a day, and from 325 to 650 milligrams per dose of dry extract powder.
- There is no effective or safe dose of damiana for children, which is why it is advisable not to given them this type of plant, regardless of the format.
Recipes to take Damiana
One of the most traditionally used products with damiana have been teas or infusions, as well as alcohol liquors that are made in the main cultivation areas of the damiana plant. Here you have a recipe to make damiana tea at home in order to consume it and obtain all its natural benefits.
The leaf of the plant can be ground in a thin powder and then be mixed with hot water, in order to include it in any homemade recipe, since it has been proven that it does not lose its properties when it is cooked or baked. You can also soak the leaves in water for a few minutes to make damiana tea, like you would with any other plant.
Combine a cup of almost boiling water with approximately half a spoon of dry damiana leaves per cup of tea that you wish to prepare. Let the blend soak for 10 to 15 minutes until it cools. Add a little bit of honey to sweeten the drink, although its flavor is not bad it can still be improved.
It is advisable to drink this tea once a day or up to three times on the same day, depending on the effects you want to obtain. You can also drink it only when you feel that you can benefit more from its effects.
If you want to get rid of the physical and mental effects of stress, it is advisable to combine the damiana leaf in tea with holy basil, maca, and ashwagandha extract. Several studies have proven that this blend can help you relax thanks to their properties.
The damiana oil is obtained from the damiana herb through steam. You can use it as a massage oil, but make sure to dilute it on a safe oil like argan or jojoba oil to avoid any cutaneous reaction.
If you are planning to use this oil to increase you libido, you can mix some of drops of the essential oil with a few spoonfuls of milk in a hot bath. You can also use it as an air freshener, you just have to use the essential oil on an oil diffuser, this can help you relieve anxiety and stress.
If you like vaporizing, damiana is a good candidate. The vaporization allows all the chemical compounds to be effectively inhaled without loosing their properties. The ideal temperature to vaporize damiana is 190 degrees centigrade.
The damiana liquor is another common and effective way of consuming this plant. You can make it at home in the following way: Mix 60g of dry damiana leaves per liter of vodka, and let it soak for at least 10 days. Strain it and the use a coffee filter. Take the leaves from the alcohol and put it in 500ml of water during the whole night. Strain it and filter the water and leaves. Heat the water with one or two cups of honey and slowly dissolve the sugar in the water at medium heat. Mix the vodka infusion with the honey infusion and let it rest for two or three months. Pour the liquor in a bottle carefully.
This drink has been made for centuries in California and Central America. It has been used in traditional celebrations, looking for that aphrodisiac effect both in men and women.
Cultivation of Damiana
Many people have tried to cultivate pots of turnera diffusa at their homes. We have to remember that damiana is native to Central America and it is always cultivated in warm areas, which means that it stands droughts very well. If you want to cultivate this herb we advise keeping it in a place where it will not receive a lot of water, but enough direct sunlight, which is basic for its cultivation. The soil has to be relatively dry, regardless of the type of soil that you use, since the damiana can grow in any kind of soil, as long as it meets the previous requirements. On the contrary, it will be very difficult for it to grow.
Once you have managed to purchase some seeds, here you have some advice about its cultivation and care:
You can plant the seeds on a plain tray cover it with two inches of dirt. Separate the seeds and cover them with a thin layer of soil. Wet the soil, without using too much water, and put a plastic over the tray. It is important to put said tray in a place where it will receive direct sunlight, and make sure that the temperature is never lower than 21 degrees centigrade.
When the plant comes out of each one of the seeds measures half an inch, it is the time to plant them on a pot, covering the roots with soil for pots. Then, it is important to maintain those pots in an indoor place with plenty of light. You can get them out during the summer, but always keeping the minimum temperature that we mentioned previously.
After the Harvest
After harvesting the leaves, which will always be done in the summer, we advise drying them to store them for a long period of time. You can use the fresh damiana leaves or dry them to use them for tinctures and infusions. The dry damiana leaves have to be stored in a dry hermetic recipient and in a fresh and dark place.
Does taking Damiana tea help to become pregnant?
A lot has been said about the influence of damiana tea on pregnancy. Even though it is not advisable to take this product during pregnancy (regardless of the format), due to the lack of studies, it seems to be advisable before beginning this process.
Taking damiana tea regulates the menstrual cycle and stimulates the functioning of the ovaries to produce healthy ovules. Moreover, taking this plant as a tea encourages a good mood and the libido, as we have previously mentioned in this article.
Some specialists say that you have to take damiana tea from the first day of your menstruation until the 16th and start the process over again. The best thing to do would be to take a cup of tea or infusion during this period. If you become pregnant, taking damiana tea will not affect the baby, since the first fifteen days of pregnancy you are not pregnant yet because you ovulate from the 14th day onward.
You will obtain the results in just two months approximately, always keeping in mind that all the organisms are not the same and the results can change depending on your state of health.
Not advised for…
However, it is very important to explain that this type of tea is not suitable for everyone, in fact, those who suffer diabetes and who suffer hypoglycemia should not consume damiana tea. This is due to the fact that this plant has a mild hypoglycemic effect, as we have previously seen.
Those who suffer anemia should not consume it either, because this plant can interfere in the absorption of iron. So, if you still want to take this type of infusion, you should control your iron levels.
As you can see, the damiana tea is very easy to make and not very difficult to take if you keep in mind that you can only take it certain days if you want to become pregnant. In any case, the best thing would be to consult a reliable doctor or specialist so that he or she will tell you if you should use this type of tea or look for an alternative.
Studies and References about Damiana
- Sabna Kotta, Shahid H. Ansari and Javed Ali. Exploring scientifically proven herbal aphrodisiacs. 2013 Jan-Jun; 7(13): 1–10.
- Senes-Lopes TF, López JA, do Amaral VS, Brandão-Neto J, de Rezende AA, da Luz JRD, Guterres ZDR, Almeida MDG1. Genotoxicity of Turnera subulata and Spondias mombin × Spondias tuberosa Extracts from Brazilian Caatinga Biome. 2018 Apr;21(4):372-379. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2017.0041. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
- Bernardo J, Ferreres F, Gil-Izquierdo Á, Valentão P, Andrade PB. Medicinal species as MTDLs: Turnera diffusa Willd. Ex Schult inhibits CNS enzymes and delays glutamate excitotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells via oxidative damage. 2017 Aug;106(Pt A):466-476. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2017.06.014. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
- Urbizu-González AL, Castillo-Ruiz O, Martínez-Ávila GC, Torres-Castillo JA. Natural variability of essential oil and antioxidants in the medicinal plant Turnera diffusa. 2017 Feb;10(2):121-125. doi: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.01.013. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
- Estrada-Reyes R, Ortiz-López P, Gutiérrez-Ortíz J, Martínez-Mota L. Turnera diffusa Wild (Turneraceae) recovers sexual behavior in sexually exhausted males. 2009 Jun 25;123(3):423-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.03.032. Epub 2009 Mar 31.
- Henrique DM Coutinho,corresponding author, José GM Costa, Edeltrudes O Lima, Vivyanne S Falcão-Silva and José P Siqueira, Júnior. Herbal therapy associated with antibiotic therapy: potentiation of the antibiotic activity against methicillin – resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Turnera ulmifolia L. 2009; 9: 13. Published online 2009 May 8. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-9-13
- Azhar Rasul, Faya Martin Millimouno, Wafa Ali Eltayb, Muhammad Ali, Jiang Li and Xiaomeng Li. Pinocembrin: A Novel Natural Compound with Versatile Pharmacological and Biological Activities. 2013; 2013: 379850. Published online 2013 Aug 5. doi: 10.1155/2013/379850
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