What is Synephrine?
Synefrine is the main active ingredient found in Citrus aurantium, popularly known as Sour Orange, and which has a long tradition in Chinese medicine under the name of “Zhi Shi” and is currently being studied by researchers.
Only bitter orange peel has shown medicinal value, mainly for digestive problems and some other health concerns. The peel contains flavones, synephrine alkaloids, octopamine, and N-methylthylamine and carotenoids
What are the properties of Synephrine?
It is a natural chemical and structurally similar to catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline), which are the compounds that cause the breakdown of fat cells. Synephrine is a central nervous system stimulant, with effects very similar to ephedrine, but with fewer detrimental effects.
The extract of this fruit has been shown to induce fat loss, reduce appetite, improve performance, and is able to maintain muscle tissue even in calorie-deficit conditions
Benefits of Synephrine
In popular medicine, it is also used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, nervousness and insomnia, gout and sore throat, and even for obesity.
Among the benefits to reduce the percentage of fat, synephrine is related to:
reducing appetite, increasing energy and metabolism, and having a thermogenic effect .
How does Synephrine work?
Deeper into the mechanism of action of synephrine it should be borne in mind that it is a selective stimulant of beta 3 adrenergic receptors, without affecting another such as alpha 1 and 2 and beta 1 and 2.
It is precisely this property that favourably distinguishes synephrine over other stimulants, such as ephedrine or amphetamines, and makes it a very effective supplement as a resistance stimulant, nervous system stimulant and thermogenic without the side effects at the cardiovascular system level, which are closely linked to adrenergic receptors, meaning it has no impact on the heart rhythm.
Due to the similarity of Synephrine and Epinephrine, fat loss is achieved through lipolysis. Adipose tissue will begin releasing stored fat to serve as energy during training
Effects of Synephrine
For this reason, the synephrine of Citrus Aurantium causes the release of adrenaline and norepinephrine from cellular deposits that in turn trigger beta 3 receptors that are directly responsible for lipolysis, i.e. the combustion of fatty acids inside fat cells.
By the same action, during a workout, it can also help to delay fatigue by preserving muscle glycogen
In particular the adrenergic system, or amino sympathomimetic, has several types of receptors that are spread throughout the body and in several tissues it is common to find one that predominates over the others:
- The alpha 1 receptor causes vasoconstriction of the arteries by increasing blood pressure. Alpha 2 receptors affect pressure by determining the vasoconstriction of the peripheral microcircle and inhibiting lipolysis, its stimulation can lead to hypertension.
- Beta 1 and 2 are spread across the heart and respiratory system and control bronchodilation and dilation of the myocardium vessel, as well as skeletal musculature, excessive arousal can cause problems.
- Beta 3 receptors (where synephrine works) selectively increase the release of fatty acids and triglycerides from adipose tissue by increasing lipolysis and thermogenesis and consequently endurance.
Therefore, synephrine extracted from Citrus Aurantium is an effective agent to accelerate fat removal and promote performance without having side effects
How to take Synephrine?
The average dose is 20mg two or three times a day. Normally, synephrine can be found in supplements containing Bitter Orange (or Sour orange), or as an ingredient in lipolytic formulas along with other ingredients, creating a synergistic effect.
This type of preparation serves as an adjuvant in the elimination of adipose tissue, but also as a pre-workout or competition aid as it promotes concentration, strength and endurance by releasing energy substrates.
Effectivity of Synephrine
Among these we can cite:
- Study 1: acute synephrine ingestion increases the rate of oxidation of fat, while reducing the oxidation rate of carbohydrates during exercise, at low to moderate intensities
- Study 2: synephrine is an antagonist of alpha 1 and 2 receptors, which work to prevent lipid mobilisation
- Study 3: the action of synephrine causes increased metabolic rate and fat oxidation
- Study 4: the combination of caffeinated synephrine form a perfect “stack” to lose fat
As several studies may indicate, synephrine could be an excellent tool for weight management and fat loss
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